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B. Ed. (Music), B. Mus. (Hon), Ph.D.

Sohyun Eastham

.: PhD Thesis - Volume 1

Title: The Role of the Violin in Expressing The Musical Ideas of the Romantic Period and the Development of Violin Techniques in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries (2007)

 This is the organisation of my Thesis - Part 1.   Click on the titles to view a summary of the chapter...


Chapter 1: Introduction


Chapter One introduces the background of this study and outlines the significant questions which the study attempts to answer.

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Questions which this study attempts to answer

1.3 Organisation of the Thesis

Chapter 2: Study Design and Methodology


Chapter Two is a detailed description of the design and methodology used in the study.

Chapter 3: The Romantic Period


Chapter Three outlines the research on the historical background of the Romantic Period with special emphasis on nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century violin music. It also discusses the social conditions of performance.

3.1 Romanticism and the Romantic Period

3.2 The end of the Romantic Era in Music

3.3 What happened in that Period?

3.4 How did the Development of Public Performance and the Concert Halls Relate to Romantic Compositions?

Chapter 4: The Development in the Design of the Instrument


Chapter Four is the investigation of the literature available on the topic of instrument development.

4.1 Developments of the Violin Shape

4.1A How did the Violin Shape and Bow Develop?

4.1B How did the Evolution of the Violin Relate to Violin Playing?

4.2 Summary of How Violin Developmen Responeded to new Playing Conditions

Chapter 5: An Analysis of the Music Considering New Techniques...


Chapter Five is an analysis of the music. It considers techniques only where they are new techniques in Romantic music. Further, consideration is given to the expressive reasons lying behind the new styles of writing for violin which are observed in the music of this period.

5.1 Rhythm

5.2 Texture

5.3 Tone Colour and Dynamics

5.4 Tempo, Style and taste as other means of expression

5.4A Tempo

5.4B Style

5.4C Taste

5.5 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Left-Hand Violin Techniques


Chapter Six deals with left-hand violin techniques in Romanticism, discusses new techniques and offers insight into their development. The second part of this chapter investigates fingering in the Romantic Period.

6.1 Some new Techniques of the Nineteenth Century

6.1A Shifting and the Portamento

6.1B Octaves

6.1C Tenths

6.1D Playing Chord Passages (triple stops and quadruple stops)

6.1E Left Hand Pizzcato and left Hand Articulation

6.1F Harmonics

6.1G Vibrato and Portato

6.2 Fingering in Romanticism

6.2A Changes of Position

6.2B Use of even-numbered Positions and the Half-position

6.2C Chromatic Passages

6.2D Thirds

6.2E Open Strings

6.2F Recurring Finger Patterns

Chapter 7: Right-hand Violin Techniques


Chapter Seven researches the production of Romantic tone and the colour of the tone. It also outlines bow patterns that were used and developed in the nineteenth century and how they contributed to the more expressive music.

7.1 Bowing Patterns

7.1A Detache

7.1B Martele

7.1C Staccato

7.1D Spiccato

7.1E The Ricochet

7.1F Mixed Strokes

7.1G Legato

7.2 Tone Production

7.2A Bow Pressure

7.2B Bow Speed

7.2C Contact Point

7.2D Finger Stroke

7.3 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Conclusion


Chapter Eight brings the research to its conclusion and offers some answers to the questions which were raised at its outset.

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